Eccentric calcified nodule within a peripherally calcified cyst in the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Tuberculomas may calcify in the center giving the appearance of a pathognomonic target sign. Cryptococcus neoformans: Punctate calcifications in the brain parenchyma and leptomeninges. Vascula The kidney has a fibrous capsule, which is surrounded by perirenal fat. The kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus containing renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatics and perirenal fat. The renal parenchyma has two layers: cortex and medulla
Certain renal diseases manifest as low signal intensity of the renal parenchyma on magnetic resonance images. Sometimes, the appearance is sufficiently characteristic to allow a specific radiologic diagnosis to be made Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumor) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumor.They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic hematuria occurs in 60% of the cases. On imaging, they have a variety of radiographic appearances, from solid and. renal parenchymal calcification what does it mean please explain? Dr. Victor Bonuel answered 38 years experience Internal Medicine It could suggest : Congenital kidney conditions such as medullary sponge kidney or could be from conditions that cause elevated calcium level like huperparathyroidism...
Renal parenchymal abnormalities may be divided into those that involve the entire kidney, such as rejection, glomerulonephritides, amyloidosis, and drugs, and those that are either primarily cortical or primarily medullary, such as nephrocalcinosis. These conditions are discussed in this section To classify a renal cyst as type I, there must be no septa, calcifications, or solid components. These lesions do not enhance with IV contrast. type 2: almost universally benign, but unlike type I, they may contain thin septa. Thin or slightly thickened calcification may be noted within the cyst wall On CT an AML is usually a well-defined, heterogeneous tumor, located in the renal cortex and containing areas of fat density of -20 HU or less. Calcification or necrosis within the tumor is rare. The presence of both fat and calcifications should raise the suspicion of a RCC . Lalli RENAL PARENCHYMA calcifications, or nephrocalcinosis, may occur as a result of specific lesions within the cortex or medulla or as a consequence of hypercalcemia or hypercalciu- ria
Advanced Radiology Clinic (Pvt.) Ltd., Karachi, Pakistan. Metastatic calcification is the deposition of calcium salts in previously healthy tissues, usually as a result of abnormalities of calcium and phosphorous metabolism. The pulmonary parenchyma is most susceptible to calcification. Such condition may be caused by both benign and malignant. All cases are believed to represent examples of calcified renal parenchymal scars, resulting from old granulomatous disease, renal abscess, or hematoma. We propose that these lesions be regarded as solitary renal parenchymal stones without malignant potential, rather than calcified masses Citing articles cannot be displayed at this time. Article Metrics. View article metric Plain radiographs play a limited role in evaluating renal pathology. Typically, calcifications projecting over the renal shadows may be identified as nephrolithiasis or in a pattern suggestive of nephrocalcinosis Calcification and the Kidneys. Calcification is the abnormal accumulation of calcium salts in body tissue. This abnormal accumulation of calcium in the kidney is referred to as nephrocalcinosis.
Abnormal renal calcification may affect either the renal parenchyma (nephrocalcinosis) or more commonly the collecting system (renal calculi). Pelvicalyceal calcification. Renal stones/calculi are concretions of inorganic material within the renal collecting system. 90% of renal calculi contain enough calcium to be visible on abdominal X-rays Radiographs show calcification outlining the entire kidney, ureters, and bladder in advanced cases. Calcification in the seminal vesicleor vas deferens is suggestive of TB in non- diabetics. Calcification may also occur in psoas or paraspinal abscesses and in cases of abdominal or pelvic lymphadenopathy The term nephrocalcinosis is used to describe the deposition of both calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. It may cause acute kidney injury. It is now more commonly used to describe diffuse, fine, renal parenchymal calcification in radiology. It is caused by multiple different conditions and is determined progressive kidney dysfunction We found a significant increase in vascular and parenchymal calcifications in the women on renal dialysis. Ductal calcifications were no more prevalent in the patients on dialysis, and in no case did the calcification simulate malignancy. Evans, A.J., Cohen, M.E.L. & Cohen, G.F. (1992). Clinical Radiology 45, 343-344
Renal infections radiology 1. Urinary tract infections are the most common urologic disease. Diagnosis is based on typical clinical symptoms and laboratory findings. In general, imaging is not necessary for diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in adult patients. However, diagnostic imaging demonstrates the extent and nature of the urologic infections and their. Parenchymal calcifications can vary morphologically and in size and may be focal or diffuse throughout the pancreas . The degree of calcifications increases with disease progression [ 13 ]. Scattered parenchymal or intraductal calcifications occur in approximately 50% of patients, parenchymal atrophy in 54% of patients, and ductal dilatation in. parenchymal. means pertaining to the substance of the kidney. disease. is self-explanatory. Meaning Of Bilateral Renal Parenchymal Disease. So basically, the kidneys on both sides are showing some changes on the ultrasound. THAT'S IT! That is what the report means: the kidneys look abnormal on the ultrasound Fig. 10.6 A hypodense subcapsular mass with a fluid center is demonstrated in the left kidney during the parenchymal (ne-phrographic) phase, i.e., the phase of most intense contrast enhancement by the renal parenchyma. j Angiomyolipoma of the Kidney. Fig. 10.7 This patient presented with severe acute flank pain
. 33 years experience Diagnostic Radiology. A scrotal: pearl is a benign incidental finding, no treatment required. Send thanks to the doctor. Renal parenchymal calcification. Calcification in renal cortex. Upper pole renal cortical calcification 1 Department of Radiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, UK. PMID: 11297074 DOI: 10.1007/s002470000390 Abstract Two neonates were found on US to have branching linear calcification in the renal parenchyma, right sided in one and bilateral in the other. CT confirmed the presence of branching calcification in the kidneys and.
The Bosniak classification was described in 1986. This classification helps the radiologist to categorize each cystic renal mass as nonsurgical (ie, benign in category 1 and 2) or as surgical (ie, requiring surgery in category 3 and 4). After the original description, it became obvious that there were some category II cysts that were. RADIOLOGY- RADIOGRAPHY- URINARY SYSTEM PATHOLOGY. Posted on July 12, 2004 Updated on July 12, 2015. Agenesis (Renal) Is a relatively rare anomaly that generally manifests as the absence of the kidney on one side and an unusually large kidney on the other side, a condition known as compensatory hypertrophy.The left kidney is more frequently missing, and the condition is more common in men than. Renal parenchymal defect, renal arterial blood supply, tumoral vessel through the renal parenchyma, dilated intratumoral vessels, intratumoral/perirenal hemorrhage, renal sinus enlargement, and associated AML were seen only or mainly in exophytic renal AML (all P value < 0.05); however, non-fat-attenuating enhancing intratumoral nodules.
Causes of Renal Parenchymal disease:-. The causative reasons can be various like the intake of junk food in regular intervals, diabetes, hypertension, high blood pressure, lupus nephrites, sedimentation of uric acid, calcium with oxalates. The disease can also be the hereditary. Lack of proper care and healthy living can also be the reason Renal Parenchyma calcifications. Lalli AF. Seminars in Roentgenology, 01 Apr 1982, 17(2): 101-112 DOI: 10.1016/0037-198x(82)90032-3 PMID Radiology, (4):682-689 1967 MED: 6059607 Radiology in the diagnosis of renal failure. Fry IK, Cattell WR. Br Med Bull. PUTTY KIDNEY. Friday, October 01, 2004. Putty kidney from renal tuberculosis. Findings: A large calcified mass is present in the right abdomen, and there is aortic calcification. CT images show extensive lobular calcifications of right kidney, a dilated left renal pelvis and proximal ureter, and atrophy of renal parenchyma Renal calculus - IVU control image. Hover on/off image to show/hide findings. Tap on/off image to show/hide findings. Renal calculus - IVU control image. This image shows a single focus of calcific density projected over the left kidney. Further investigation is required to determine if this is located within the renal collecting system
.2 translocation/TFE gene fusion. Methods: Twenty-one patients with Xp11.2/TFE RCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumour location, size, density, cystic or solid appearance, calcification, capsule sign, enhancement pattern and metastases were assessed BACKGROUND. Most renal masses are incidentally detected on imaging performed for unrelated symptoms or indications. Although the majority of these lesions are renal cell carcinoma, most are small (i.e. stage T1a), a substantial portion are benign, and some malignant lesions are indolent [6, 7].Each of the major imaging modalities offers advantages and drawbacks in renal mass evaluation
Renal Parenchymal Disease also known as Kidney Parenchymal disease, Bilateral Renal Parenchymal Disease, and Renal Parenchyma of Kidney. To about renal parenchymal disease first, we have to know the basic anatomy of the kidney. Basic Anatomy of The Kidney. The parenchyma is a functional part of a kidney that filters blood and makes urine CASE SUMMARY. Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) may develop in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, related to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). 1 The histologic pulmonary findings show calcium deposition in the lung interstitium, alveolar septa and bronchial walls. 2 We present a patient with CT findings of MPC that resolved with medical treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism
Ultrasound: The term describes the sonographic characteristics of the kidney tissue. When the cortical echogenicity is increased the kidney looks brighter. This is a finding usually associated with various chronic renal parenchymal disease. When decreased can represent swelling from acute infection or renal vein obstruction Image Studies Collecting duct carcinoma may be hyperechoic, isoechoic, or hypoechoic to renal parenchyma at sonography. At CT and MR imaging, collecting duct carcinoma appears heterogeneous with areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, and calcification. Collecting duct carcinoma commonly shows low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and. Genitourinary radiology kidneys parenchymal small kidney renal artery stenosis renal artery stenosis renal artery stenosis is the most common cause of a unilateral small smooth kidney other causes include chronic renal vein thrombosis post obstructive atrophy renal hypoplasia previous renal trauma or renal radiation therapy Renal parenchymal calcification is further classified as either medullary nephrocalcinosis or cortical nephrocalcinosis. Because of the concentrating effects of the loops of Henle which lie in the renal medulla, renal medullary calcification is far more common than the cortical calcification  The authors report a case of fulminant, metastatic lung calcification leading to progressive respiratory failure in a patient who underwent unsuccessful renal transplantation. Premortem computed tomographic (CT) examination of the lung demonstrated the presence of high-attenuation (greater than 100 HU) parenchymal consolidation, compatible with.
Distribution. In the BI-RADS atlas the following descriptions are given for the distribution of calcifications (1) : Diffuse or Scattered: diffuse calcifications may be scattered calcifications or multiple similar appearing clusters of calcifications throughout the whole breast.; Regional: scattered in a larger volume (> 2 cc) of breast tissue and not in the expected ductal distribution Metastatic calcification refers to the deposition of calcium in normal tissue. The lung is one of the primary sites of metastatic calcium deposition ().Metastatic calcifications of lung parenchyma are related to chronically elevated serum calcium-phosphorus product as in chronic renal failure, primary hyperparathyroidism, D hypervitaminosis, milk alkali syndrome or diffuse myelomatosis () Imaging findings. Figure 1 shows a single axial contrast-enhanced CT image at the level of the right renal hilum, demonstrating diffuse reniform enlargement and parenchymal thinning of the right kidney. Peripherally, a mixture of cystic change and non-enhancing tissue is seen. No calcification is present. No extrarenal complications are demonstrated Vascular. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Aneurysm is a dilatation of more than 3 cm OR. an increase in diameter of 50% greater than original artery. The majority of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are infrarenal. The correct measurement technique is outer wall to outer wall. Common iliac aneurysm. > 1.7 cm (male
Nephrocalcinosis: calcium salt deposits in the renal parenchyma. It occurs in patients with hyperparathyroidism and medullary sponge kidneys. Diffuse, partly fine, parenchymal calcifications can be seen on the AXR (fig. 20) The pattern of parenchymal calcification is described as resembling railroad tracks . The calcification at the margins of the renal cortex may be visualised on plain radiographs or on CT. Increased renal cortical echogenicity with preservation of corticomedullary definition can also be seen on ultrasound . Renal capsule is the most common target site of leiomyomas. rarely, leiomyomas originate from the renal pelvis or cortex. Calcification is uncommon. However, the CT findings of leiomyomas of the kidney may be variable and may include.
The calcifications vary from rim-like calcifications at the papillae to radiodense replacement of portions or all of the renal parenchyma. Additionally, distortion of the collecting system results in contraction of the renal pelvis and stricture formation (infundibular, ureteropelvic junction [UPJ], and ureteral) No perfusion on renal scintigraphy. Hydronephrotic type : Dilatation of renal pelvis and calyces with parenchymal cysts that donot communicate with the collecting system 56. Newborn shows no normal renal parenchyma and the right renal fossa filled with multiple simple appearing cystic structures c/w MCDK The authors report a case of fulminant, metastatic lung calcification leading to progressive respiratory failure in a patient who underwent unsuccessful renal transplantation. Premortem computed tomographic (CT) examination of the lung demonstrated the presence of high-attenuation (greater than 100 HU) parenchymal consolidation, compatible with metastatic calcium deposition. By depicting. Tuberculosis results in calcified parenchymal granulomata in 10% to 20% of patients; meningeal calcifications are much less common. HIV encephalitis is associated with basal ganglia calcification. Cryptococcus affects immunocompromised patients and calcifications can be seen in both the brain parenchyma and the leptomeninges Calcification in cystic renal masses: is it important in diagnosis? Radiology. 2003;226:47-52. , 22 22 Bosniak MA. Problems in the radiologic diagnosis of renal parenchymal tumors
kidney with parenchymal thinning, severe hydronephrosis, and lobar calcification. Lobar calcification occurs as a result of dystrophic calcification within caseous debris, and it can form a cast of the kidney (putty kidney) when it is diffuse. Advanced ureteral fibrosis causes a pipe-stem, corkscrew, or beaded appearance of the ureter owing to. Progressive disease shows papillary destruction with echogenic masses near the calyces, distorted renal parenchyma, and irregular hypoechoic masses that connect to the collecting system. A small, shrunken kidney with a very thin cortex and dystrophic calcifications generally characterizes end-stage disease Parenchymal calcification occurs in long-standing renal TB, although only in about 20 percent of all patients. Radiological feature Plain film. pyelography Plain film. Lobular opacities, sometimes described as cumulus clouds, are found in caseo-cavenous tuberculosis Imaging findings that should raise the suspicion of AML include the absence of calcification, the absence of perinephric collateral vessels, multiple lesions, hyperattenuation in comparison to renal parenchyma on UECT, and hypointensity on T2-weighted MRI Fig. 1D. —Calcifications associated with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.Transverse sonogram of pancreas in 52-year-old man with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis displays some large concretions that shadow (curved arrow).However, many smaller stones are represented as bright reflectors but without accompanying sonic shadow (arrowhead).This is a common finding
Publicationdate 2007-05-20. A solitary pulmonary nodule is defined as a discrete, well-marginated, rounded opacity less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter that is completely surrounded by lung parenchyma, does not touch the hilum or mediastinum, and is not associated with adenopathy, atelectasis, or pleural effusion In the general population, renal cysts are the most common space-occupying lesions in the kidney. With this technique, 80% of detected renal masses are characterized as simple cysts  thus ending their diagnostic evaluation.The remaining 20% of renal masses require further study with CT or MR imaging .Any mass detected that does not meet the strict sonographic criteria for a simple cyst. Densely calcified kidney is referred to as Putty kidney [1, 2]. It is the state of autonephrectomy resulting from renal parenchymal destruction and caseation because of renal tuberculosis [1, 2]. Associated with tuberculous ureteric stricture, the urine is negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is believed to be a self-defense.
The mass is slightly hyperattenuating relative to the urine and renal parenchyma. TCC of the renal pelvis in a 43-year-old man with flank pain and hematuria. Axial nephrographic phase CT scan shows that the mass (arrow) has characteristic early enhancement, which is less than that of the surrounding renal parenchyma what does it mean when a renal ct scan shows, thinning of the cortex, punctate calcification (with no stones), and contrast extending into the calyx. Answered by Dr. Steven Chmielewski: Atrophy: Renal cortical thinning is seen due to functional loss of nep.. A CT scan revealed a large, solid mass measuring 5.8 cm × 5.2 cm in the posterior aspect of the upper portion of the right kidney, with higher attenuation than the normal renal parenchyma. The mass appeared heterogeneous, showing a thick and irregular rim and tiny faint calcification Unusual Malignant Solid Neoplasms of the Kidney: Cross-Sectional Imaging Findings Ali Devrim Karaosmanoğlu, MD, 1, * Mehmet Ruhi Onur, MD, 2 Ali Shirkhoda, MD, FACR, 3 Mustafa Ozmen, MD, 4 and Peter F. Hahn, MD 1 1 Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.: 2 Department of Radiology, University of Hacettepe School of Medicine. Patients with renal disease had significantly more calcifications than those with normal kidney function. Parenchymal calcifications (61% versus 27%) were the most frequent, followed by vascular (45% versus 8%) and ductal (29% versus 9%). Parenchymal calcifications were categorized as small, round, or oval; scattered; and not associated with a.
Cystic renal lesions are a common incidental finding on routinely imaging examinations. Although a benign simple cyst is usually easy to recognize, the same is not true for complex and multifocal cystic renal lesions, whose differential diagnosis includes both neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. In this review, we will show a series of cases in order to provide tips to identify benign. Dr. Peder Horner answered. 19 years experience Interventional Radiology. Kidney abnormalities: calcific densities in the kidneys usually represent calcifications or stones, depending on any other associated findings they may have mentioned. So Read More. 2 doctors agree renal mass with calcification renal papillary necrosis renal parenchymal gas renal parenchymal tumor renal pseudotumor renal vein thrombosis right anterior pararenal space abscess >> Return to top. S scrotal calcification seminal vesicle calcification shadowing mass in renal collecting system small bladder small kidney small urinary bladde Renal cysts are sacs of fluid that form in the kidneys. Most of the time, they are simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in older people and typically do not cause any symptoms or harm. In rare cases, renal cysts may require treatment due to infection, bleeding, or enlargement As judged by the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria, renal Doppler ultrasonography is the most appropriate imaging test in the evaluation of AKI and has the highest level of recommendation. Unfortunately, nephrologists are rarely specifically trained in ultrasonography technique and interpretation, and important clinical information obtained from renal ultrasonography may.
Renal calcifications have also been described in atypical mycobacterium infections, viz, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare , which have been reported in 5.5 % of patients with AIDS.These usually take the form of fine punctuate calcification and as a rare exception to the usual rule in mycobacterial calcification—occur in the acute rather than the chronic stage of disease In the absence of calcified lymph nodes and splenic or liver calcifications, the late sequelae of a viral pneumonia, particularly varicella (chickenpox), is entertained. The calcified lung nodules are said to be on the order of 1-2 mm. 25. Dystrophic calcifications occur in other infectious settings, but are less integral to the diagnosis Kindly take a look at the below link : Glomerular Disease / Renal Parenchymal Clinic and if you are looking for the treatment of mentioned disease in Ayurveda then kindly forward me your reports along with your contact number at abhinav@meetvaidya.. Renal calculi were seen in four patients, sonographically demonstrated as echogenic foci in the dependent portion of the collecting system, usually accompanied by acoustic shadowing. One patient developed nephrocalcinosis, sonographically observed as echogenic medullary pyramids plus punctate, shadowing parenchymal calcifications Definition, Etiology, PathogenesisTop. Renal parenchymal hypertension is a form of secondary hypertension caused by kidney disease. It may occur in the course of glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease), kidney damage in the course of systemic connective tissue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, systemic vasculitis), tubulointerstitial.
Wilms' tumor usually appears as a large, heterogeneous intrarenal mass on abdominal CT. These tumors demonstrate a lower degree of enhancement compared to the adjacent normal renal parenchyma . Necrosis and hemorrhage are commonly observed in the intratumoral portion, and calcifications are seen in approximately 15% of Wilms' tumors [11, 12] Calcification is more commonly seen in benign renal cysts than in malignant renal cell carcinoma. 2. Most calcified renal cell carcinomas exhibit extreme hypervascularity angiographically. 3. The pattern and location of calcification in the renal parenchymal region are very helpful in differentiating benign from malignant tumors. 4 Calcified structures (such as bile stones and kidney stones) may cause acoustic shadowing. Compare the echo reflection pattern of the liver parenchyma with the cortex of the right kidney in order to evaluate for the presence of liver steatosis (see Pathology section )
The contralateral kidney revealed no significant findings apart from some simple cysts. Discussion. A. Background Renal replacement lipomatosis is a rare disease characterised by benign proliferation of adipose tissue in the renal sinus and perirenal space, with associated atrophy and destruction of the renal parenchyma [1,2] Renal stones can be small, resembling punctate foci of calcifications, or they may be large enough to fill the renal calyces and are known as staghorn calculi. The stones are also visible within the ureters, which travel down the lateral borders of the transverse processes of the lumbar spine DISCUSSION. Metastatic calcification refers to the deposition of calcium in normal tissue. The lung is one of the primary sites of metastatic calcium deposition ().Metastatic calcifications of lung parenchyma are related to chronically elevated serum calcium-phosphorus product as in chronic renal failure, primary hyperparathyroidism, D hypervitaminosis, milk alkali syndrome or diffuse. Pre-contrast medium CT images can reveal renal hemorrhage, renal parenchymal calcifications and vascular wall calcifications. Aneurysms or varices related to a renal AV shunt are demonstrated as round or oval masses at pre-contrast CT. Post-contrast CT images typically show an early enhancement of the fistula and the ipsilateral renal vein Most have evidence of fat or calcification. These tumors have variable enhancement. Their appearance can be mimicked by other heterogeneous tumors, such as rhabdoid tumors. Below is an axial (post gad) MR of a pineal non-germinomatous germ cell tumor (#1). Below is a sagittal view of the same pineal tumor . Parenchymal tumor
INTRODUCTION. Metastatic and dystrophic calcification, defined as deposition of calcium salts in normal and abnormal tissues, respectively, can manifest in the lungs. Pulmonary ossification refers to bone tissue formation (calcification in a collagen matrix), with or without marrow elements, in the lung parenchyma Background: Arterial calcifications increase arterial stiffness and are associated with a faster decline of kidney function in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Yet the underlying mechanisms linking arterial calcifications, vascular stiffness and renal function decline are incompletely understood A contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a mass with a fatty density within the right upper kidney causing a renal parenchymal defect. The mass showed vessels extending into the renal cortex, a sign known as renal parenchymal vascular pedicle ( Figure 1a ), and a fatty tumour thrombus invading the right renal vein and extending up to the. A 68 year old woman presented with worsening shortness of breath on exertion. She had a history of polycystic kidney disease, chronic renal failure, renal transplant, and secondary hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcaemia while she was on dialysis. She had left mastectomy for breast cancer, and was on multiple medications including tacrolimus and prednisolone Renal venous thrombosis with calcification and preservation of renal function Renal venous thrombosis with calcification and preservation of renal function Wilkinson, A. Graham; Murphy, Anna V.; Stewart, Graham 2001-02-26 00:00:00 Two neonates were found on US to have branching linear calcification in the renal parenchyma, right sided in one and bilateral in the other
With few exceptions, angiomyolipomas can be distinguished radiographically from malignant renal masses by the presence of macroscopic fat within the mass.Although several case reports have described renal cell carcinomas containing fat, almost all these carcinomas have had associated calcifications [1-8].Only a few prior reports have described the CT appearance of renal cell carcinomas with. Renal parenchymal scarring was the most common finding on CT scans. The findings of renal parenchymal masses and scarring, thick urinary tract walls, and extraurinary tubercular manifestations were better depicted and were significantly more common on CT scans than they were on intravenous urograms
Plain film of the abdomen showed faint calcifications in the area of the renal beds. Computed tomography, without contrast enhancement, showed curvilinear calcifications throughout the left renal parenchyma and the upper half of the right kidney (Fig. 1). Calcification was noted in the IVC and the left renal vein (Fig. 2) Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis (HD) suffer from a number of metabolic derangements. Ectopic deposition of calcium in the skin, soft tissues, blood vessels, and viscera is a potentially devastating consequence of disorders of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. We report the case of a patient with ESRD and secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving HD who. Mammography of breast calcifications . Malak Itani 1, Aaron T Griffin 2 and Gary J Whitman * 3. 1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. 2 Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA. 3 Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, US