Craniotomy position post op

PPT - Nursing Care & Priorities for Those with Traumatic

Craniotomy: positioning injury - OpenAnesthesi

Patient Positioning (Sims, Orthopneic, Dorsal Recumbent

What to Expect After a Craniotomy: A Guide to Your Recover

A craniotomy is a procedure done by a neurosurgeon to remove a part (bone flap) of the cranium (skull) temporarily to get access to the brain. This procedure is not done by itself but rather as a part of another surgery done either to the brain or surrounding tissues. The bone flap is put back in place once the surgery is complete A craniotomy is the removal of a part of the skull or the cranium bone. Specialized tools are utilized to take out the part of the bone. After the brain surgery is performed, the bone flap is removed and then replaced Blood loss/transfusion and the duration of surgery were significantly higher in the horizontal position (p<0.05). Brainstem handling was the most common cause of prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation and was seen more in the sitting position. Lower cranial nerve functions were preserved better in the sitting position (p<0.05) Objective: To determine the effect of position of the patient's head after burr hole craniostomy on the outcome of chronic subdural haematoma, in terms of haematoma efflux, hospital stay and recurrence rate. Study design: Quasi experimental. Place and duration of study: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from February 2007 to February 2008 After brain surgery, it will take time for the patient to return to his/her usual level of energy. Healing requires extra rest. The amount of time required to recover after brain surgery is different for each person and depends on: The procedure used to remove the brain tumor; The location of the tumor within the brai

Critical Care of the Neurosurgical Patient; Care and

Post-Operative Concerns, Transport, Disposition: to ICU post-op. Keep intubated if mental status questionable or to maintain hyperventilation. Can assess neuro exam post-op while intubated by titrating narcotics. Vasospasm: Risk highest 6-8days post-bleed, Treat w/ Triple-H therapy (Hypervolemia, Hypertension, Hypoviscosity) Mannitol Overdose. Craniotomy Procedure. Surgery is usually the most effective approach for the treatment of meningiomas that are aggressive or cause symptoms. A craniotomy is a surgical procedure that involves opening up the skull in order to remove the tumor. An incision is first made in the scalp, then a piece of bone known as a bone flap is removed to access. Imaging plays an essential role in the evaluation of patients after cranial surgery. It is important to be familiar with the normal anatomy of the cranium; the indications for different surgical techniques such as burr holes, craniotomy, craniectomy, and cranioplasty; their normal postoperative appearances; and complications such as tension pneumocephalus, infection, abscess, empyema. Craniotomy is a major surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia. Immediately after surgery, the pa tient's pupil reactions are tested, mental status is assessed after anesthesia, and movement of the limbs (arms/legs) is evaluated. Shortly after surgery, breathing exercises are started to clear the lungs THE TERM CRANIOTOMY MEANS TO SURGICALLY CREATE AN OPENING INTO THE SKULL FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF SURGICAL PROCEDURES ON THE BRAIN. · CHANGE THE POSITION SLOWLY WOTH PROPER SUPPORT TO THE HEAD AND NECK. until I saw a post in a health forum about a Herbal Doctor(Dr Akhigbe) who prepares herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including.

Craniotomy is a surgery to cut a bony opening in the skull. A section of the skull, called a bone flap, is removed to access the brain underneath. A craniotomy may be small or large depending on the problem. It may be performed to treat brain tumors, hematomas (blood clots), aneurysms or AVMs, traumatic head injury, foreign objects (bullets. The term craniotomy refers broadly to the surgical removal of a section of the skull in order to access the intracranial compartment. The portion of skull temporarily removed is called a bone flap, and it is replaced to its original position after the operation is completed, typically fastened into place with plates and screws

A nurse is caring for a client following an infratentorial craniotomy. How should the nurse position this client in the immediate post-operative period? Infratentorial craniotomy the patient should be placed flat and side-lying. Turn side to side every 2 hours for 24 to 48 hours Craniotomy in the sitting position is high risk for VAE because the venous sinuses are noncollapsible. The incidence of VAE during sitting craniotomy varies, depending on the detection method General guidelines for craniotomy post-operative care. Keep the incision site clean - Craniotomy incisions are often closed with sutures or surgical staples. Follow the craniotomy post-operative care regarding anaesthesia care of the physician. Some doctors instruct patients to keep the incision dry, whereas others make it possible for patients to gently wash their own hair and the incision. A craniotomy for brain surgery IS a serious procedure. Any operation in which the brain is operated on is serious. I am 6 months post-op. My headache was excrutiating for 2 weeks, and you have to sleep in a seated position with your head above your heart. I am still not driving the interstate, just around our tiny beach town. It is a 6. Transsphenoidal Surgery Post Operative Instructions - The Neuroendocrine & Pituitary Tumor Clinical Center offers detailed outpatient evaluation of all disorders affecting the endocrine function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, achieved through comprehensive office visits, complete basal and dynamic hormone testing, and coordination of radiologic studies and visual field evaluations

Positioning for Cranial Surgery Clinical Gat

  1. Post craniotomy healing / normal recovery. I noticed I have been adding a lot of stories about my day to day happenings since surgery and thought I would just give you a list of what I am figuring as normal healing post Craniotomy surgery. Just after surgery: I only remember 10 days post surgery because of the steroid induced psychosis
  2. e is having surgery to remove a brain tumor. We talked about it a little bit last year, not long after my surgery. His doctors were able to confirm right away that his tumor wasn't cancerous (which is all kinds of YES), but in the last few months, it started growing at a rather unpleasant rate, so they elected to pull that sucker out
  3. g brain surgery for meningioma, you are likely concerned about what to expect during your recovery period.While every patient is different and your exact experience will depend upon your individual circumstances, it can be helpful to have a general understanding of the recovery process to help you plan ahead and alleviate stress
  4. Definition. The postoperative phase of the surgical experience extends from the time the client is transferred to the recovery room or postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the moment he or she is transported back to the surgical unit, discharged from the hospital until the follow-up care. Goals. During the postoperative period, reestablishing the patient's physiologic balance, pain management.
  5. BRAIN TUMOR SURGERY Op340 (4) removal of firm, adherent, or calcified tumor is simplified by Cavitron ultrasonic aspirator (CUSA) - tip vibrates at 22,000 Hz - ultrasonically disrupts tumor; tip is surrounded by two concentric channels, one dispensing saline to solubilize fragments and another suctioning away that suspension. allows for internal debulking of large tumors and reduces amount of.
  6. utes to observe the effect: the desired effect is analgesia, bu
Cureus | Supracerebellar Infratentorial Endoscopic and

washout or craniotomy. Student t-test was applied for numerical variables like age, amount of fluid drained and length of hospital stay. Categorical variables like coagulopathy, improvement in neurological status, completeness of fluid removal, presence or absence of any complications were analyzed by Chi-square test. Statistical significance wa Craniotomies in the temporal and pterional region often require detachment of the temporalis muscle from the bone. If the muscle is not re-approximated and secured in its correct anatomical position, post-operative contracture of the muscle can occur resulting in masticatory dysfunction and cosmetic deformity

Craniotomy Johns Hopkins Medicin

  1. Treatment depends on the cause, and in many instances, no treatment is necessary with the gas being gradually resorbed. This is the case in the vast majority of post-operative pneumocephalus, an expected finding in essentially all post-craniotomy patients
  2. Craniotomy is a surgery where an opening is made in the skull to access deeper structures including the brain. the bone is usually replaced and kept in position with soft wire, or plates and.
  3. ister analgesics such as codeine sulfate or aceta
  4. Craniotomy for Meningioma. The craniotomy for meningioma procedure, performed under general anesthesia, creates an opening through the skull for removal of a meningioma. This type of tumor is found in the dura - the fibrous membrane between the brain and skull. The surgery usually requires several hours to complete, depending on the location.
  5. 15. Answer: C. Semi-fowlers position with the head in a midline position. Post-craniotomy client should be placed in a semi-fowlers position and the head is in a midline position to facilitate venous drainage from the head

Craniotomy: What to Expect at Hom

  1. Craniotomy is a surgery to cut a bony opening in the skull. A section of the skull, called a bone flap, is removed to access the brain underneath. A craniotomy may be small or large depending on the problem. It may be performed to treat brain tumors, hematomas (blood clots), aneurysms or AVMs, traumatic head injury, foreign object
  2. Keywords: surgery, neurological; position, sitting The use of the sitting or upright position for patients undergoing posterior fossa and cervical spine surgery facilit-ates surgical access but presents unique physiological chal-lenges for the anaesthetist with the potential for serious complications.2 This patient position provides optimu
  3. imize stretching of the brachial plexus
  4. Post Pituitary Surgery Fact Sheet Operations through the skull (craniotomy) are far less common these days than they used to be. However, there are still situations where a craniotomy is required, for example, if parts of the tumour cannot be reached through the nose
  5. Teach the client not to use the side rails to change position. Maintain proper body alignment in all positions.The client's body is turned as a single unit (usually with a turning sheet) to avoid movement of the operative area. Pulling on the side rails puts stress on the operative area and may also cause misalign-ment of the vertebral column
  6. Methods. We conducted a narrative, comprehensive review of the literature aimed at to define the specific care needs of a patient with stroke who receives craniectomy. Search terms included craniectomy in multiple variations, ischemic stroke, ICH, SAH, complications, and nursing care. More than 60 publications were reviewed
  7. The term craniotomy refers broadly to the surgical removal of a section of the skull in order to access the intracranial compartment. The portion of skull temporarily removed is called a bone flap, and it is placed back in its original position after the operation is completed, typically fastened into place with low-profile titanium plates and screws

Craniotomy Rehabilitation & Post Surgery Nursing Care

The operation is performed in a sitting position to achieve this relaxation. Patients will require a pre-operative cardiac evaluation to ensure safe surgical outcomes. This procedure is performed endoscopically, allowing for improved visualization and a smaller craniotomy EVD insertion. A freehand pass technique using surface landmarks is commonly used by surgeons to place an EVD.[] The right frontal cerebral hemisphere is the preferred site of entry given its nondominance for language function in >90% of patients.[7,10] The patient is maintained with head of bed elevated at 45 degrees in the supine position.Hair is removed using clippers and the scalp is. Pneumocephalus (also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele) is defined as the presence of air in the epidural, subdural, or subarachnoid space, within the brain parenchyma or ventricular cavities.[1] Lecat first described this condition in 1741, but the term pneumocephalus was coined independently by Luckett in 1913 and Wolff in 1914.[2][3][4] The term tension pneumocephalus (TP. Background:Surgery of pineal region lesions is considered a challenging task, due to the particular relationship of lesions in this location with neural and vascular structures.Few series with a significant experience of dealing with these patients have been reported. Methods:We review our experience using infratentorial supracerebellar approach in the surgery of pineal region, regarding the. Transsphenoidal Surgery For Pituitary Adenomas; A Patient Guide - The Neuroendocrine & Pituitary Tumor Clinical Center offers detailed outpatient evaluation of all disorders affecting the endocrine function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, achieved through comprehensive office visits, complete basal and dynamic hormone testing, and coordination of radiologic studies and visual field.

Microvascular Decompression Surgery, Recovery Time, and Side Effects. UPMC is one of the nation's leading centers for microvascular decompression, a minimally invasive surgical procedure that treats the cause of the cranial nerve disorders, offers the most long-lasting relief, and minimizes risk of postoperative side effects like numbness A cranioplasty is a surgical procedure used to correct a defect in a bone of the skull. The defect might be congenital, the result of trauma to the head or a complication from an earlier surgery. A cranioplasty will not only improve the appearance of the head, but also may provide several medical benefits. Strengthening the problem area offers.

Supratentorial craniotomy position

Abstract. External ventricular drains are life-saving devices used in neurosurgical patients with hydrocephalus (excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid). The fluid is produced in the brain ventricles and circulates around the brain and spinal cord, protecting them from injury and supplying brain cells with nutrients Craniotomy for Supratentorial Tumor (CPT 61510, 61512) General: Patients may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptoms may be due to location of tumor or due to increased ICP. You should know the location, kind (if known) and size of the tumor (s), any neurological deficits and symptoms and if the patient is at risk for increased ICP

While doctors and patients alike were encouraged by anesthesia to resort to cesarean section rather than craniotomy, mortality rates for the operation remained high, with the infections septicemia and peritonitis accounting for a large percentage of post-operative deaths Surgery may not be a good option in some cases, such as if the tumor is deep within the brain, or if it has spread throughout a part of the brain that can't be removed, such as the brain stem. If this is the case, other treatments may be used instead. Craniotomy. A craniotomy is a surgical opening made in the skull

Study 19 Terms Nursing 22: Oncology - Exam 3 (Brain

Microvascular decompression (MVD) Overview. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a surgery to relieve abnormal compression of a cranial nerve causing trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, or hemifacial spasm.MVD involves opening the skull (craniotomy) and inserting a sponge between the nerve and offending artery triggering the pain signals View full document. 1. A nurse is caring for a client following an infratentorial craniotomy. How should the nurse position this client in the immediate post-operative period? With this post-op consideration, have the patient lay flat and positioned on either side for 24-48 hours. 2. A nurse is caring for a client following a bone marrow biopsy The need for a craniotomy should be upon the discretion of the neurosurgeon. The nurse on the other hand must do his or her best to take care of the post operative patient. One can read and search about this procedure in google online. The pages of facebook ads and blog are also available to share the free articles about craniotomy dominal surgery, recent peritonitis, or multiple abdominal adhesions).6 Other CSF shunt options include lumbar-peritoneal, ventriculo-atrial, ventriculo-pleural, or ventriculo-gallbladder shunting.13 VPS systems have four basic com-ponents: the proximal (primary or inflow) catheter, the reservoir, a one-way valve, and the distal (terminal o

Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the womb (uterus), with or without the cervix. The operation may also be with or without the removal of the ovaries and the fallopian tubes. The uterus is a muscular organ of the female body, shaped like an upside-down pear. The lining of the uterus (the endometrium) thickens and, after ovulation, is. Figure. AN IMPLANTED cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt system diverts excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the most common type of implanted CSF shunt system. 1,2 An estimated 33,000 CSF shunt placement procedures are performed in the US annually, with most being VPS. 3. Although VPS placement is a commonly performed neurosurgical procedure. Supracerebellar infratentorial approach see also Contralateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach. Indications Several surgical approaches have been described for falcotentorial meningioma treatment. These include infratentorial supracerebellar approach. A steep tentorial angle is an unfavorable preoperative radiographic factor for achieving maximal resection with the supracerebellar.

Department of Neurosurgery Subdural Hematoma (SDH): A guide for patients and families - 3 - Subacute subdural hematomas are ones found within 3-7 days of an injury. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to appear. These are more commonly seen in the elderly population where brain shrinkag A: The CPC receives questions related to call coverage after hours and on weekends on the majority of weekly rosters. This is a hotly debated subject and a source of concern for many perianesthesia nurses. The same staffing requirements apply when patients are in the PACU after hours as during regular business hours

Post-Craniotomy Care - Cure Toda

  1. Post removal of the EVD, ensure the patient and wound site are observed and the dressing remains dry and intact. ICP monitoring Codman™ Monitor (ICP express) - is a device which enables measurement of pressure via a pressure transducer and fibre optic cable, but it does not have the ability to drain CSF as an EVD does
  2. Chronic subdural hematoma surgery complications. The most frequent complication after chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is chronic subdural hematoma recurrence requiring reoperation. Although several definitions of recurrence have been proposed 1) one of the most consensual definitions of recurrence is the association between new clinical symptoms and hematoma revealed by CT scans
  3. T1 post-contrast enhancement-based GTV2 under- In contrast, GTV1 for GBM patients underwent broad went an average increase of 22% (mean = 6.82cc, range fluctuations in the post-operative and delayed GTV -13.44 to 73.26, p = 0.07)
  4. Post-operative care for neurological clients having supratentorial and. craniotomy nursing care; infratentorial craniotomy position post op . Jul 21, 2015 . Here's a list of the common patient positioning for different. Arteriovenous fistula , Post-op: Elevate extremity, Don't sleep on. . Craniotomy, HOB elevated 30-45% with head in a midline.
  5. imum, one perioperative RN circulator should be dedicated to each patient undergoing an operative or other invasive procedure and should be present during that patient's entire intraoperative experience.

Patient Positioning The Neurosurgical Atla

Bleeding, blood clots, or infection. Risks for ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement are: Blood clot or bleeding in the brain. Brain swelling. Hole in the intestines (bowel perforation), which can occur later after surgery. Leakage of CSF fluid under the skin. Infection of the shunt, brain, or in the abdomen To obtain information on the incidence of thromboembolic complications of craniotomy, we performed a PubMed search of the English-language literature published during the years 1970 to 2004, using various combinations of the Medical Subject Headings neurosurgery, neurosurgical procedures, craniotomy, venous thrombosis. A Catalyst Moment. It is a pivotal moment for our world, our nation, and our brain tumor community. Join David Arons, CEO of the National Brain Tumor Society, and the entire brain tumor community for an update on the progress we have made in the fight to conquer and cure brain tumors, and the critical work that lies ahead in 2021 Pituitary surgery removes an abnormal growth on your pituitary gland. Your pituitary gland is at the base of your brain. It makes important chemicals called hormones. These hormones are involved in many of your body's functions, including growth, sexual development, reproduction, and your metabolism (the way your body uses food for energy)..

Craniectomy: Recovery, Complications, and Outloo

  1. The question of when you can have sex after surgery is a common one, yet it's one many people are embarrassed to ask their surgeon. Unfortunately, the answer is not straightforward, as it depends on your overall health, your post-surgical healing progress, and the type of surgery you are having
  2. Surgeons can also perform a craniectomy or craniotomy. In a craniectomy, the surgeon removes a flap of bone, but does not replace it. In a craniotomy, the surgeon removes a flap of the skull and returns the piece of bone to its original place either immediately or at a later time. Most of the CPT® codes include craniectomy or craniotomy, so for coding purposes, it often doesn't matter which.
  3. The posterior fossa is a small space in the skull, found near the brainstem and cerebellum. The cerebellum is the part of the brain responsible for balance and coordinated movements. The brainstem is responsible for controlling vital body functions, such as breathing. If a tumor grows in the area of the posterior fossa, it can block the flow of.

During craniotomy, VAE can be seen in nearly all positions including supine and prone. The incidence of VAE in the sitting position ranges from 6% to 30%. Severe VAE, defined by systemic. A higher arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) level of about 35 mmHg (slightly greater than during neurosurgery in other positions) may be acceptable in sitting position craniotomy because ICP is usually less in this position. Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) is usually maintained between 0.4 and 1 About Your Surgery. A VP shunt is used to drain extra cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from your brain. CSF is the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord. It's made in the ventricles (hollow spaces) inside your brain. CSF protects your brain and spinal cord by acting as a cushion Surgeons may perform a craniotomy, a procedure to open the skull, for a meningioma found on the brain's surface. Craniotomy may also be used for tumors found in some areas of the skull base, such as near the brainstem, where the brain meets the spinal cord. Dr. John Golfinos performs surgery. A craniotomy is performed using general anesthesia Surgery such as a craniotomy is advised as soon as possible on people who are significantly neurologically compromised as it results in rapid decompression of the brain (Rangel-Castilla 2016). Hyperventilation can be used, however, the findings for this mode of treatment are mixed and some studies have shown that patients who were.

Craniotomy Procedure: What It Treats, Precautions, and

Craniotomy. A craniotomy may be recommended if an abscess does not respond to aspiration or reoccurs at a later date. During a craniotomy, the surgeon shaves a small section of your hair and removes a small piece of your skull bone (a bone flap) to gain access to your brain. The abscess is then drained of pus or totally removed such as cataract surgery or lens implants, and this should be noted on the initial assessment and confirmed with the patient or family. A pupil that is oval in shape may indi-cate the early compression of cranial nerve III due to increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and thus should be addressed immediately. If an oval pupil is detected, meas

Patent Foramen Ovale and Elective Posterior Fossa Craniotomy in the Park-bench Position: How Should We Proceed? Hajat, Zakir MBChB, FRCA; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi MD, FRCA, FRCPC; McGuire, Glenn MD, FRCPC. Author Informatio post-op period (usually due to unexpected complics) • -79 return to O.R. for unrelated procedure during post-op pd • -80 assistant surgeon - What is payment policy of Medicare & insurers on this code? - What are the consequences? Managed Care Non-Compliant Policies for E/M Codes with Procedure Modifiers • Some turn off modifier. Lunix LX5 4pcs Orthopedic Bed Wedge Pillow Set, Post Surgery Memory Foam for Back, Neck and Leg Pain Relief. Sitting Pillow, Comfortable and Adjustable Pillows Acid Reflux and GERD for Sleeping Brown. 4.7 out of 5 stars. 1,735. $199.97. $199. . 97. Get it as soon as Wed, Jul 14 Craniotomy is an operation in which a piece of the skull is removed so doctors can remove a brain tumor or abnormal brain tissue. Light sedation allows patients to remain awake during their surgery, while intubated general anesthesia puts patients to sleep. Surgery complication rates may be reduced if intubated general anesthesia is avoided Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurs when CSF escapes through a small tear or hole in the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and holds in the CSF. Learn more from Cleveland Clinic about causes, symptoms, treatment, recovery and more

Craniotomy Preparation, Risks, Complications, Brain

Supratentorial craniotomy means the exposure of any part of a cerebral hemisphere over the basal line joining the nasion to the inion. The following descriptions will deal with the most commonly used techniques from burr holes to skull flaps and the main difficulties or traps which might present themselves during the operative procedure Laminectomy is surgery that creates space by removing the lamina — the back part of the vertebra that covers your spinal canal. Also known as decompression surgery, laminectomy enlarges your spinal canal to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves After return to baseline and equilibration the position was lowered to flat and measurements were repeated with PEEP of 5, 10 and 15 cmH 2 O. Measurements were only performed whenever routine nursing procedures required position changes anyway and the clinician judged the patient to be euvolemic based on systolic pressure variation or stroke. Post-Traumatic Brain Injury Syndrome, also known as PTBIS, is a set of symptoms that a person may experience for weeks, months, years or life after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Some symptoms may manifest a substantial period of time (months or years) after TBI. PTBIS may occur subsequent to mild, moderate, and severe cases of traumatic brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors is the most widely utilized tool in grading tumor types. The WHO classification scheme recognizes 15 variations of meningiomas according to their cell type as seen under a microscope. These variations are called meningioma subtypes - the technical term for these cell variations is histological subtypes

Home Nursing For Pre & Post Operative Care for Craniotomy

Living with any grade of brain tumour can cause a huge amount of stress, anxiety or depression. These emotions use a lot of energy and can affect your quality of sleep, leading to feeling more fatigued. Dealing with your diagnosis and any uncertainty about the future can also leave you feeling physically and mentally exhausted Cohen-Gadol et al. reported 14 pregnant tumor patients of whom 4 had therapeutic abortions, 7 underwent a craniotomy and/or radiation therapy during pregnancy, and 3 were followed without intervention and reached full-term deliveries. In the current series, surgery was delayed in 10 of 14 women with known tumors requiring surgical resection Surgical options include percutaneous twist-drill craniostomy (TDC), operative burr-hole evacuation, and craniotomy. Debate surrounds not just the surgical approach but also the number of burr holes, saline irrigation of the cavity, postoperative drain use, and postprocedural patient position and mobility

nursing care for disease conditions: Nursing care for aPost-accident Head Injury with Subsequent CraniotomyEndoscope-controlled Supra-cerebellar Infra-tentorialMicrovascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia | TheSupratentorial brain tumours

or pterional craniotomy with a TMS Plate if the required plate position coincides with the craniotomy cut. The TMS Plate is placed along the superior temporal line, or slightly inferior to it, depending on the amount of muscle available. For example, a cranioplasty performed a long period after craniectomy may be associate CHAPTER 394 Supratentorial and Infratentorial Cavernous Malformations. Cavernous malformations (CMs) account for 5% to 13% of vascular lesions of the central nervous system. Historically, these lesions have been considered quite rare. 1-3 With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, the diagnosis of cerebral CMs has increased WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: SAH is a type of hemorrhagic stroke that causes bleeding in the subarachnoid space. This space is under the protective tissues that cover the brain. SAH happens when a blood vessel tears or bursts. SAH is a life-threatening condition that needs immediate medical care Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is a commonly performed procedure. It is also used for the treatment of gum cancer as well. Brachytherapy is an alternative treatment for gum cancer and is conducted who are unfit to undergo a surgery or do not need one. Brachytherapy can be completed in less time than other conventional radiotherapy techniques