Home

Does fluconazole flush out discharge

Fluclonazole - at Amazon

  1. Check Out our Selection & Order Now. Free UK Delivery on Eligible Orders
  2. Buy At a Discount Of Up To 25%. Safe Order 200 Days. Advice From Experienced Specialists
  3. No: This med is usually given as a single dose and never causes discharge. There are several causes for a discharge which are more likely than yeast
  4. You can have an increase in vaginal discharge after taking fluconazole. As the medication begins to work, the vagina will clear itself of the overgrowth of Candida and this is what you are seeing. You might want to protect your clothing by wearing a panty liner or thin pad while the discharge is clearing the body
  5. Hello, I went to the hospital yesterday to get a test for sexually transmitted infections. It came back with thrush, I was given a tablet called Fluconazole,..
Top Cardiologist This One Thing Will Properly Flush Out

Engine Flush - Does it work and is it saf

  1. Answers (1) SH. Shana D 24 Feb 2017. Fluconazole is extremely effective for yeast infections. The one pill you got was the highest strength also. It works well, and I have used it for yeast infections quite a bit. I used to have chronic ones. Now, I take it to prevent yeast when on antibiotics only. I have never had cottage cheese like discharge
  2. Fluconazole is used for many different fungal infections. If you have vaginal thrush, balanitis or oral thrush, your symptoms should be better within 7 days of taking fluconazole. Can period flush out yeast infection? clumpy vaginal discharge that usually doesn't smell (or only smells slightly different than normal). You might also.
  3. User Reviews for Fluconazole to treat Vaginal Yeast Infection. Also known as: Diflucan. Fluconazole has an average rating of 6.4 out of 10 from a total of 347 ratings for the treatment of Vaginal Yeast Infection. 52% of those users who reviewed Fluconazole reported a positive effect, while 29% reported a negative effect. Overview
  4. User Reviews for Fluconazole to treat Vaginal Yeast Infection (Page 2) Also known as: Diflucan. Fluconazole has an average rating of 6.4 out of 10 from a total of 347 ratings for the treatment of Vaginal Yeast Infection. 52% of those users who reviewed Fluconazole reported a positive effect, while 29% reported a negative effect. Overview
  5. Took diflucan 2 days ago know burns when it I pee Took medication for Chlamydia now I have clumpy discharge Unusual rectal discharge with no additional symptoms natural cure yeast infection during pregnancy Discharge and ICHY!!!!! Thick, yellowish vaginal discharge! yellow discharge after 7 days of ovaluation cystitis and white discharge
  6. on Clithmozole cream and then the second gave me one Diflucan . Two days after the 1 Diflucan, it just kept getting worse, so I went to see my general practitioner who now has me a 10 days of 150mg... View answer. Answered by : Dr. Hardik Pitroda ( Dermatologist) Took diflucan for yeast infection. Getting smelly discharge from vagina

more discharge after diflucan Answers from Doctors

The Content on this Site is presented in a summary fashion, and is intended to be used for educational and entertainment purposes only. It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or course of action Summary: Vaginal discharge is found among people who take Diflucan, especially for people who are 30-39 old, have been taking the drug for < 1 month. The phase IV clinical study analyzes which people take Diflucan and have Vaginal discharge. It is created by eHealthMe based on reports of 24,916 people who have side effects when taking Diflucan. Fluconazole is an effective antifungal agent that can be given as a single dose for vaginal candidiasis. 5. Tips. May be taken with or without food. Take exactly as directed by your doctor. Ensure you finish the course as prescribed by your doctor. Try to take fluconazole at the same time each day if you are taking fluconazole for more than one. Thrush does not damage the vagina and it does not spread to damage the womb (uterus). If you are pregnant, thrush will not harm your baby. Symptoms which suggest your symptoms are NOT due to thrush include: A smelly or coloured discharge. Bleeding between periods or after having sex. Needing to pass urine more often

What if I took the fluconazole pill on Tuesday and another

No: This med is usually given as a single dose and never causes discharge. There are several causes for a discharge which are more likely than yeast. Discuss with your DR. 2.3k views Answered >2 years ag Ratings: +0. #13 cc, Apr 25, 2016. Fluconazole works like a charm for vaginal thrush. If the severity is minimal, usually one dose is enough to clear it up. However, if the infection has spread and is extensive, one may require more doses. I have noticed that in most cases, things do get sorted out within a week or so puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue. stomach pain, continuing. tightness in the chest. unpleasant breath odor. unusual tiredness or weakness. upper right abdominal or stomach pain. vomiting. vomiting of blood. yellow eyes and skin

Why am I having worse discharge after taking Fluconazole

Flesh out an idea VS flush out an idea - The Oatmeal

A candida die-off occurs when candida, a type of yeast that lives in your body, is killed. This is usually a result of medication you're taking such as antifungal drugs. When candida dies it. before she had always given me the diflucan pill and it went away right away. however, this time she gave me the cream and i used it for the 7days like she said and didnt have sex w my bf at all. after the 7th day of using the terconazole cream my bf and i had sex w a condom. the next few days it felt a lil irritated, but i thought it was maybe due to the sex. i then noticed a slight discharge. Fluconazole, for instance, is generally only used for a few days (sometimes up to a month), and at this level of usage, the risk for side effects is quite low. #3. Just because you CAN get these symptoms does not mean that you will Does Fluconazole Work for Vaginal Yeast Infection? In this article, I'll take a closer look at Fluconazole (often sold as Diflucan), a common oral antifungal medication prescribed for vaginal yeast infection.. Studies show that a single dose of fluconazole (150mg) is effective in up to 80% of women with a vaginal yeast infection, which means that in 80% of cases Candida species were.

I took fluconazole this morning at 9am

Dr. Edward Jacobs answered. Yes: It takes several days sometimes for the infection to be treated completely. Whether the treatment is oral or vaginal would determine how long your dis Read More. 90,000 U.S. doctors in 147 specialties are here to answer your questions or offer you advice, prescriptions, and more + Fluconazole* 800 mg x1, then 400 mg q24h High-risk allergy3/contraindication4 to beta-lactams: Vancomycin* + Aztreonam* 2 g IV q8h + Metronidazole 500 mg PO/IV q8h + Fluconazole* 800 mg x1, then 400 mg q24h In patients with candidemia or who are in shock, fluconazole should be substituted with Micafungin 100 mg IV q24h Recommend ID consul Fluconazole is a prescription drug. It comes as a tablet or suspension you take by mouth. Fluconazole oral tablet is available as both a generic drug, and as the brand-name drug Diflucan.. Generic. The amount of discharge, however, does change, based largely on your menstrual cycle. During certain times of the month, particularly before ovulation, you may see an increase in its production. Though this is the most common cause of changes, other factors are known to influence this discharge as well, including exercise

How long after taking fluconazole will symptoms go away

Candida Die Off Urine. Symptoms: frequent urination, foamy urine bubbles in urine, smelly urine, pain during urination, unusual urine color. If you notice any of these symptoms or other urine related issues during the candida treatment, a few things you should know. These symptoms may or may not be related to candida Diflucan (generic name fluconazole) is a prescription drug used to treat fungal infections of the urinary tract, vagina, lung, mouth, and brain. Side effects are diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Drug interactions, and pregnancy and breastfeeding safety information are provided The pH of the vaginal discharge can easily and inexpensively be determined using pH strips. The pH paper should range from 3.5 to 7.0. fluconazole 150 mg oral tablet, one tablet in single dose . If that does not work other alternatives include 3 x per week or compounding

Fluconazole User Reviews for Vaginal Yeast Infection

  1. : Diflucan (fluconazole is generic) is taken by mouth for two months in appropriate dosage. Monistat may or may not clear a vaginal yeast . The source of the infection is in the bowel and needs prolonged treatment with nystatin
  2. SIDE EFFECTS. DIFLUCAN is generally well tolerated. In some patients, particularly those with serious underlying diseases such as AIDS and cancer, changes in renal and hematological function test results and hepatic abnormalities have been observed during treatment with fluconazole and comparative agents, but the clinical significance and relationship to treatment is uncertain
  3. Bacterial vaginosis is a very common vaginal infection. Learn about the causes, symptoms, risk factors, and treatments, plus how to get rid of BV in one day
  4. Yeast infections are most commonly treated with: a one-time dose of fluconazole (Diflucan), a triazole antifungal medication that stops Candida fungus from multiplying; pregnant women should not.
  5. Does yeast come out after taking Monistat? by Drugs.com. This is normal. Monistat-1 is a single dose vaginal cream/tablet used to treat a vaginal yeast infection. The cream is designed to stay within the vagina to work without having to reapply every day for seven days. It is normal to get some medicine leakage/discharge
  6. Fluconazole is an antifungal medicine. It's used to treat infections caused by different kinds of fungus. The most common cause of fungal infections is a yeast called candida. Fluconazole is used to treat many infections caused by candida including: thrush in men and women, such as vaginal thrush, skin irritation on the head of the penis.
Brains Flush Out Toxins During Sleep? | Science 2

Fluconazole User Reviews for Vaginal Yeast Infection (Page

Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. Higher daily doses of fluconazole (more than the single-dose treatment for vaginal yeast infections) may harm an unborn baby if taken during the first 3 months of pregnancy.Fluconazole passes into breast milk but is unlikely to harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding Fluconazole is an antifungal medicine. It's used to treat many types of fungal infections that affect different parts of the body, including the following areas Metronidazole and fluconazole are used to treat different types of vaginal infections.; Metronidazole is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas vaginal infections, and fluconazole is an antifungal used to treat vaginal fungal infections caused by Candida.; Brand names for metronidazole include Flagyl and Flagyl ER and a brand name for fluconazole is Diflucan

FENNEL WATER FOR CLEAR SKIN - THE INDIAN SPOT

unusual discharge after taking diflucan Antibiotics

Gallstone Liver Flush - Recipe & Cleanse Info - Liver

More discharge after diflucan - Doctor answers on

DIFLUCAN helps stop too much yeast from growing in the vagina so the yeast infection goes away. DIFLUCAN is different from other treatments for vaginal yeast infections because it is a tablet taken by mouth. DIFLUCAN is also used for other conditions. However, this leaflet is only about using DIFLUCAN for vaginal yeast infections A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. You had a medical procedure called lithotripsy to break up the kidney stones. This article gives you advice on what to expect and how to take care of yourself after the procedure How long does ovule take to dissolve? Once inside the vagina, the ovule will dissolve within approximately 40 minutes, in which time it forms a layer on the vaginal wall. The consistency the product maintains after insertion should prevent any leakage. Will my period flush out a yeast infection Eye discharge (eye mucus) is a combination of oil, mucus, skin cells, and other debris accumulating at the corners of your eyes during sleep. Sometimes it can be wet and sticky, and at other times. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is due to an overgrowth of yeasts within the vagina, most often C. albicans. About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15-55 harbour C. albicans in the vagina without any symptoms. Oestrogen causes the lining of the vagina to mature and to contain glycogen, a substrate on which C. albicans thrives

FLUCONAZOLE Fluconazole 50 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg What is in this leaflet This leaflet answers some common questions about Fluconazole capsules. It does not contain all the available information. It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist. All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor has weighed the risks of using. Vaginal thrush is a common infection caused by an overgrowth of the yeast Candida albicans. This yeast lives naturally in the bowel and in small numbers in the vagina. It's mostly harmless, but symptoms can develop if yeast numbers increase. About 75% of women will have vaginal thrush in their lifetime. Other names for this infection are.

It does that to flush out bacteria and old cells, and to stop pathogens (which can cause diseases) from traveling into the uterus and pelvis. The amount of discharge your body produces. Vagina & other symptoms in the body. Overnight toxins flush. Antifungal creams (relief). If only the vagina is affected with no other symptoms present in other areas of the body, a yeast infection treatment using antifungal creams is usually enough to help even with cases of acute or severe yeast infection Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina. It is not a true bacterial infection but rather an imbalance of the bacteria that are normally present in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is not dangerous, but it can cause disturbing symptoms Vaginal yeast infection is a disease caused by fungi of the genus Candida. Signs and symptoms include an unpleasant odor, genital itching, burning; sometimes white curdy vaginal discharge. In this article we will tell everything about the treatment, diagnosis, causes and prevention of the disease

Yeast Infection Medication causing increased discharge

As it turns out, a few things: 1. Sex might just further irritate your vagina. Your vagina can get inflamed and irritated when you have a yeast infection, hence all that itching and discomfort. Causes. By Mayo Clinic Staff. Most causes of abnormal vaginal discharge — such as yeast infection, bacterial vaginosis or menopause symptoms — are relatively harmless, but they can be uncomfortable. Abnormal vaginal discharge can also be a symptom of certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Since these can spread to involve the.

Diflucan and Vaginal discharge, a phase IV clinical study

Fluconazole is designed to kill the fungi that cause thrush infections. It does this by making holes in the cell membranes. This causes the essential constituents of the fungal cells out and kills the fungi, clearing up the infection. Thrush Oral Capsule Containing Fluconazole is an effective antifungal treatment you can trust This will help flush out the unwanted bacteria from the body. How do I know my yeast infection is getting better? How to Know If Your Yeast Infection is Going Away First, you will notice that vaginal discharge has returned to a normal consistency and smell. Fluconazole is used for many different fungal infections. If you have vaginal thrush. ing discharge, odor, itching, irritation, Three out of four criteria are required to make the diagnosis, with sensitivity ranging from 70% to 97% Fluconazole (Diflucan), §—For Fluconazole (Diflucan) is a triazole antifungal agent. It inhibits the formation of sterols in fungi which results in fungistatic activity. The difference between a fungicidal agent and a fungistatic one is that the former kills and the later inhi.. Vaginitis is characterized by vaginal symptoms, including discharge, odor, itching, irritation, or burning. 1 Most women have at least one episode of vaginitis during their lives, 2 making it the.

Quick info: I had a bad case of bronchitis and was treated with a Z-Pack, Prednisone, and an oral steroid inhaler. Unfortunately I was sick during the busiest week of the year for me, work-wise, and my body always hates steroids (I cannot sleep EVEN with sleeping pills, get angry/cry easily, feel horrible, and generally eat too much) Once this vaginal discharge thing starts I've only been able to treat with Diflucan. Diet, exercise, cleanses, herbs etc will not heal this degree of overgrowth. The diets (meaning NO carbs, NO sugars, NO starches) help to keep it from getting worse-yes- but will not get rid of it

Discharge Instructions 1. You have a CHOLECYSTOSTOMY DRAINAGE CATHETER. 2. You may resume your normal diet. Catheter does not flush Catheter leaking around site Stitch comes out Catheter pulls back or falls out You are re-admitted to the hospital If you received sedation-analgesia, or conscious sedation, some of the effects of the. a. Remove pedal cover, Flush toilet. If water leaks during flush,see if water is running down the hose to the water valve, if it is vacuum breaker needs to be replaced. b. Replace water valve. 8. Water leaking around water valve or from rear of toilet bowl when stepping on foot pedal a. Defective vacuum breaker. b. Loose vacuum breaker What does yellow discharge mean during pregnancy? Pregnancy comes with lots of changes and symptoms due to increased hormones. Many pregnant people will experience an increase in vaginal discharge during pregnancy because estrogen and progesterone levels, which affect vaginal discharge, are at an all-time high universal flush ear muffs to the engine water intake and turned on the hose. Water was spitting out of a couple places in the lower unit before I started the engine. When I started the engine water still flowed out of the lower unit but no water came out of the water discharge hole which is mounted on the rear of the engine itself about half.

Fluconazole: 7 things you should know - Drugs

The vagina atrophies when the vaginal skin or wall thins out, becoming red and inflamed. A yellow to greenish-yellow discharge appears, and sex is sometimes painful. Tip: Treatment of DIV can be. Urinals and urinal cisterns are probably the hardest public toilet fixtures to sell online simply because many people even those who already have them, do not understand how they work or the considerations when ordering. One of the most common areas likely to confuse is urinal flushing since unlike a regular toilet, urinals usually do not flush in response to user input 9. Ditch the tight pants. Yeast likes warm, moist places, says Dr. Brandye, so you should leave any tight-fitting pants or shorts out of your wardrobe rotation until the situation is all-clear.

Vaginal Thrush Symptoms and Treatment Patien

Green vaginal discharge is an abnormal green-coloured secretion which is often caused by the body's inflammatory response to an infection. When pathogens enter the genital tract, they reproduce causing the normal clear or whitish vaginal fluid to become heavy and take on a yellow, yellow-green or green color The pot marigold helps flush out candida toxins from the body. It also helps protect the healthy cells of the body. Pau d'Arco bark has the ability to inhibit the candida growth. And it helps flush out the candida toxins from the gut. Diflucan vs candidate. Candidate is a relatively new antifungal Vaginal discharge is a normal mechanism through which the body keep the vagina healthy and clean. Normal vaginal discharge is usually clear or milky and does not smell bad. Cheese-like discharge is a common yeast infection for most women. Yeast infections cause itchiness, redness, or irritation in the vaginal area Fluconazole is used to prevent and treat a variety of fungal and yeast infections.It belongs to a class of drugs called azole antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of certain types of fungus Fluconazole for fungal infections. Fluconazole is an antifungal medicine. It is usually taken as a single 150 mg dose for vaginal thrush. You can take it at any time of day, either before or after a meal. Longer courses of treatment are prescribed for other types of fungal infections

Liver Cleanse Recipe and How to do a Liver Flush

thick, white vaginal discharge with no odor or with a mild odor white patches in the mouth, tongue, or throat Incidence not known. Difficulty with moving increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight muscle pain or stiffness pain in the joints redness or other discoloration of the skin severe sunburn trouble sitting stil Discharge Pump: Our T-series SaniPumpTM discharge pump can run dry without harm and draws just 6 amps at 12 VDC. The discharge pump has a flow rate of just over 5.25 gallons per minute (11.4 liters per minute). Emptying an onboard tank usually takes four to six minutes. The T-pump is connected to a through-hull fitting. Check the sectio Treatment. Yeast in urine (candiduria) is best treated with fluconazole (brand name: Diflucan) for 1 to 2 weeks. However, if the specialist( usually the urologist or nephrologist) has determined that the yeast infection is established in the kidney tissue, then a higher dose and longer treatment schedule is needed to eradicate the yeast infection from the kidneys A toilet that flushes slow but is not clogged can be quite frustrating. Weak or slow water movement can fail to create an effective flush. In a normally functioning toilet, the rapid water movement creates a suction inside the pipe, which serves as the actual flush that pulls down all waste material down the drain

is it normal to have increased discharge after taking a

In a study with 300 patients, MONISTAT® relieved itching, burning, and irritation 4x faster than fluconazole**—patients experienced symptom relief in just 1 hour vs. 4 hours for fluconazole. Time to cure a yeast infection was the same for all treatments. *Compared to prescription fluconazole. **Based on a clinical study with MONISTAT® 1. Seeing the doctor and getting a Fluconazole prescription is the best way to get rid of a yeast infection. Monistat (Miconazole), an over-the-counter medication, and prevention can also help. Can drinking a lot of water flush out a yeast infection? Vaginal discharge that looks like cottage cheese and is thick, white, and odorless The 'Killer' Die-Off Toxins of Candida. If you have a Candida albicans infestation in your body and you finally decide that you need to do something about all the problems it's created for you, and you begin to follow a Candida diet and/or take certain antifungal substances, then sooner or later you will experience what is officially referred to as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. The yeast infection pill. The treatment of choice is a single 150 mg oral dose of fluconazole (Diflucan). Most women consider the pill more convenient than creams applied intravaginally. A cool fact is that a single 150 mg dose of fluconazole maintains effective, therapeutic concentrations in vaginal secretions for at least 72 hours after you. 4.7 out of 5 stars. 45. $449.95. $449. . 95. This two-piece toilet from Renovators Supply Manufacturing features a striking marbled pattern with green and gold accents. It can add style and class to a bathroom. Made of durable ceramic, it has a sizeable tank with a top-mounted dual flush for light and regular flushes

Fluconazole 150mg Reviews for Vaginal Thrush - Pharmacy Foru

The vagina is designed to keep itself clean with the help of natural secretions (discharge). Find out how to help your vagina keep clean and healthy, and why you don't need douches or vaginal wipes. The vagina is a tube of muscle inside a woman's body that runs from the cervix (the opening of the womb) to the vaginal opening Normal vaginal discharge has several purposes: cleaning and moistening the vagina, and helping to prevent and fight infections. It's normal for the color, texture, and amount of vaginal discharge to change at different times of the month during a girl's menstrual cycle. But some changes in discharge may mean there is a problem Information about Clotrimazole Cream And Fluconazole Capsule - Kit. Side Effects. Nausea, stomach/abdominal pain, dizziness, or headache may occur with fluconazole. Clotrimazole cream may cause temporary burning, itching, or redness. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly Boric acid is an effective treatment for yeast infections. This article looks at the research into boric acid, how to use it, and possible risks

Clotrimazole is an antifungal medicine. It's used to treat yeast infections including thrush in women and men, although thrush is more common in women.. Thrush is caused by a fungus (yeast) and can affect the vagina and area around the vagina, breasts and nipples or the end of the penis Fluconazole kills the Candida fungi causing the thrush infection by making holes appear in their cell membranes. This allows essential constituents of the fungal cells to leak out, which kills the. For pyelonephritis, fluconazole 200 to 400 mg orally once a day is preferred. Therapy in both cases should be for 2 weeks. For fungi resistant to fluconazole, amphotericin B is recommended at a dose of 0.3 to 0.6 mg/kg IV once a day for 2 weeks for cystitis and 0.5 to 0.7 mg/kg IV once a day for 2 weeks for pyelonephritis

Vaginal discharge. Burning and pain during urination. vaginal yeast infection discharge. When you are having a yeast infection, you are more likely to have a vaginal discharge that will make you uncomfortable. In most cases, it's white, thick, odorless and clumpy and it's not pleasant to see and visualize The dose is usually 6 milligrams (mg) per kilogram (kg) of body weight on the first day, followed by 3 mg per kg of body weight once a day, for at least 2 weeks. Children younger than 6 months of age—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor. Adults—Doses of up to 400 milligrams (mg) per day

Thrush is caused by a fungus called candida that is normally harmless. Thrush tends to grow in warm, moist conditions and develops if the balance of bacteria changes. This can happen if: your skin is irritated or damaged. you're taking antibiotics. you have poorly controlled diabetes If your bird occasionally sneezes a clear fluid (less than once or twice a day) and has no other symptoms, he is probably just exercising the normal mechanism to clear his nostrils. There are many causes of sneezing and nasal discharge in birds. A few of the most common include: Irritation from dust or dander. Bacterial infections AZO Urinary, Bladder, and Vaginal Health Products. AZO helps you Own Your Day with our complete line of urinary and vaginal products. Whether you're looking for the #1 most trusted over-the-counter UTI pain reliever, a product to slow the progression of your UTI, one of the most trusted over-the-counter homeopathic medicines for vaginal and yeast infection symptom relief, or a naturally.

How often should you use Monistat? Insert the tablet or the applicator into the vagina as far as it will comfortably go. Slowly press the plunger of the applicator to release the tablet. If you have itching/burning around the outside of the vagina (vulva), apply the skin cream to that area usually twice a day for no more than 7 days Teach diflucan and aggression in kids and these things from an acute otitis media, acute attack. Advantages: percutaneous drainage if cord is fibroelastic cartilage, covered in serum after anticholinergics. In general, the oesophagus. Laparoscopy is already specialise in fetal does fluconazole kill candida yeast rate If a cream or suppository does not work, or if the person has had several yeast infections in a short time, a doctor might prescribe an oral antifungal medication, such as fluconazole (Diflucan). One dose may be enough to resolve the infection Pets with runny noses are a common problem. In many cases, the problem clears up with a simple course of antibiotic, but often, as the antibiotics wear off the nasal discharge simply recurs. This series of articles will discuss the most common causes of nasal discharge, how we diagnose what is wrong with your pet and the treatment options. In this article we will list the most common causes of.